Medical Specialties

At the Center for Neurosciences, we work together across specialties to provide the best, most comprehensive approach to treatment.


Tinnitus is the phantom perception of noise in the ears that occurs in the absence of an external sound source. It is estimated that about 1 in 5 people experience tinnitus. Tinnitus by itself is not a disease but may be a symptom of another condition. In addition to a ringing sound, the noise may be perceived as buzzing, roaring, crickets, the ocean, or even music. A special variant of tinnitus, pulsatile tinnitus, is hearing one’s heartbeat in one or both ears. Both pulsatile and non-pulsatile tinnitus may be constant or intermittent. The source of the tinnitus can be the ear itself; however, tinnitus is far more commonly of central origin (from the brain).

The inciting event for tinnitus may be a change in inner ear function; however, the tinnitus generator is likely to be somewhere in the brain’s auditory circuitry (central auditory pathways). Some of the most common causes include age-related hearing loss, exposure to loud noises, earwax impaction, certain medications, or a stiffening of the middle ear bones as in otosclerosis. Often, a precise cause is never identified. Tinnitus may also be related to other conditions such as Meniere’s disease, acoustic neuroma, head trauma, TMJ, depression, anxiety, and sleep irregularities. Current theories suggest that the brain’s “re-tuning” of central auditory pathways in response to hearing loss (even in non-speech frequencies) is the most common cause of non-pulsatile tinnitus. It must be remembered that sound is common and does not typically incite an emotional response. Tinnitus, however, is often experienced in a negative context due to the development of conditioned reflexes caused by abnormal connections between our auditory pathways and primitive centers of the brain that control emotion.

Pulsatile tinnitus, the perception of blood blow in the skull base, is often benign but can be due to unusual causes such as narrowed blood vessels (carotid or vertebral arteries), glomus tumors, arterio-venous fistulas, and arterio-venous malformations. Other unusual conditions such as increased intracranial pressure resulting from obesity or superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome can also cause pulsatile tinnitus.

A thorough medical history, otologic examination, and a comprehensive audiogram make up the initial/minimum workup for idiopathic tinnitus. Single-sided tinnitus, tinnitus associated with new onset asymmetric hearing loss, or tinnitus with new balance complaints requires skull base imaging (MRI Brain with Internal Auditory Canal Protocol). Pulsatile tinnitus is often worked up using either MR or CT angiography. Suspected superior semicircular canal dehiscence is diagnosed with non-contrast temporal bone CT scan and increased intracranial hypertension is worked up/treated by Neurologists. New sensorineural hearing loss and non-pulsatile tinnitus diagnosed within 30 days of onset may be treated with oral or injectable steroids.

If there is no source identified for tinnitus or if the cause is unable to be treated, there are several management options to consider. Often, the tinnitus never goes away completely, so finding strategies for coping with symptoms is critical. Cutting down or stopping smoking/consumption of alcohol along with regular exercise and relaxation may improve the tinnitus. Consultation with an audiologist to consider hearing aids or use of a tinnitus-masking device (hearing aid-like device that produces white noise) is reasonable. A trial of melatonin is sometimes effective. Additionally, cognitive behavioral strategies with or without sound treatments (tinnitus retraining) may be recommended.

Why Choose Us

  • Dr. Abraham Jacob, Medical Director for Ear & Hearing (E&H) at the Center for Neurosciences (CNS), is fellowship trained in Otology, Neurotology, and Cranial Base Surgery. He is the first and most experienced Neurotologist in Tucson.
  • Dr. Jacob was a founding member of the University of Arizona (UA) Department of Otolaryngology prior to his departure and transition to CNS. At UA, he was Vice Chair of ENT and held the rank of full Professor with Tenure. He has an international reputation as an expert for treating ear diseases.
  • Dr. Jacob transitioned his practice to the Center for Neurosciences in early 2017 as he felt that the new environment helped him to optimize delivery of personalized ear and lateral skull base care.
  • Dr. Jacob’s primary role in the management of tinnitus is to ensure that no serious medical conditions are missed. Once sinister causes are ruled out by comprehensive history, audiometry, and imaging techniques, tinnitus management is focused on hearing rehabilitation. A full array of assistive listening devices, hearing aids, tinnitus maskers, and implantable hearing solutions are offered through E&H. Those requiring intra-tympanic treatments or surgery for their tinnitus can rest-assured that Dr. Jacob has the most experience with management of complex ear diseases of any ENT physician in Southern Arizona.
  • Our highly-skilled Doctors of Audiology, Stephanie Bourn, AuD, CCC-A and Mary Rose Goldstein, AuD, CCC-A, strive to provide you with accurate information regarding your hearing status, promote understanding of your hearing and communication needs, increase your knowledge of evidence-based management and/or treatment options, and introduce you to the hearing health tools that can maximize your quality of life reducing the negative impact of hearing disorders.